Caribbean Journal of Sciences and Technology (CJST) <p>Caribbean Journal of Science and Technology (CJST) is a half yearly (from 2022), international, open access, journal committed to multidisciplinary subjects related to biological, chemical, pharmaceutical, and technological sciences. CJST publishes manuscripts including Original research, review articles, Mini-reviews and Short communications on original work either hypothetical or experimental in the following areas: Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Bioinformatics etc.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> en-US (editor-In-Chief) (Ubitech Solutions Pvt Ltd.) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Preliminary Survey of the Intestinal Helminths of Grasscutter and Antelope (Bush Meat) in Omagwa Rivers State <p>The preliminary investigation on the prevalence of intestinal helminths in two popularly consumed wild games (bushmeat) <em>Thryonomys swinderianus</em> (grasscutter) and <em>Alcelaphinaespp.</em> (antelope) from Omagwa district in River State, Nigeria was carried out using the concentration technique (formalin ether method) and fecal egg count/larvae count technique. A total of 110 slaughtered animals were used, 45 males (40.9%) and 65 females (59.1%), of this total number of the test samples, 60 (54.5%) were grasscutters consisting of 25 (41.7%) males and 35 (58.3%) females and antelopes were 50 (45.5%) consisting of 20 (40.0%) males and 30 (60.0%) females. In general, out of the total number of grasscutters examined, 15 (37.5%) males and 25 (62.5%) females were infected with the intestinal helminths. Also, from the total number of antelopes examined, 10 (38.5%) males and 16 (61.5%) females were infected. And the result from t-Test showed that there were no significant difference (P &gt; 0.05) from the number of samples examined, as both test samples were infected by different intestinal helminths, irrespective of the highest rate of infection shown by the females at 41 (62.1%) as against males at 25 (37.9%). In addition, this result revealed the presence of seven different species of intestinal helminths (<em>Ascarisspp,Strongyloidesspp</em><em>, </em><em>Trichurisspp</em><em>, Fasciola</em><em>spp</em><em>, </em><em>Taeniaspp</em><em>, </em><em>Moniliformisspp</em><em>, and Hookworm</em>) of which <em>Ascaris spp., Strongyloides spp., Taenia spp., and Hookworm </em>were present in both and <em>Trichuris spp., </em>with<em>Moniliformis spp.</em> being presentin grasscutters, while <em>Fasciola spp.</em> was only foundin antelope. The females from both test samples has the highest count of ova/worm of the intestinal helminthic as at 162 (antelopes) and 81 (grasscutters) against the males at 79 (antelopes) and 40 (grasscutters). But the result from ANOVA shows that there were no statistical significant difference (P &gt; 0.05) in the prevalence of intestinal helminthic ova’s/worm’s between the male and female of both test sample. It is believed that this study will spark further research into the other types of consumable bushmeats and at the same time draw the attention of necessary bodies into the monitoring of the activities of various eateries and outlets where these meats are served, so as to ensure that good hygiene is maintained.</p> P. N. Abara, L. A. Adjeroh , M. O. Nwachukwu , I.D. Osinomumu Copyright (c) 2021 Caribbean Journal of Sciences and Technology (CJST) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Green synthesis of Ag-nanoparticles by roots-extract of Rumex nepalensis and their biological potentials <p>The current study has reported the silver-nanoparticle’s green synthesis of silver-nanoparticles using silver ions from silver nitrate and by aqueous-root-extract of <em>R. nepalensis</em>. Initial clue of Ag-nanoparticles (AgNPs) formation was change in the color of solution from light brown to grey followed by broad band of UV-Visible spectrum obtained at 447 nm. Average size of the resulting AgNPs was 17.15 nm and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) confirmed their crystalline cubic structure. SEM showed high intensity, spherical and cubic shaped AgNPs in addition to some irregular morphologyof AgNPs’ FT-IR analysis indicated incidenceof natural products which reducedthe silver and stabilized the resulting NPs and that is also evident by the rich phenolic (149 mg RE/g) and flavonoids (143mg GAE/g) contents in methanolic rootextract of<em> R. nepalensis.</em> These phenolic and flavonoid contents were also found responsible for antioxidant potency (IC<sub>50</sub>= 1.533) shown by the same extract. Antibacterial screening of methanolic extract, aqueous extract and biosynthesized AgNPs of <em>R. nepalensis</em> showed inhibition zone (8.0, 6.0 and 8.0mm) and (10.0, 11.0 and 8.0mm)against <em>Escherichia coli </em>and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, respectively. In this study, antibacterial activities of aqueous rootextract of <em>R. nepalensis</em> was found to be the most potent against <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>.</p> Muhammad Riaz, Muhammad Altaf, Yasmeen Shakir, Ayaz Muhammad , Azhar Sherkheli Muhammad, Basharat Ali, Arshad Islam Copyright (c) 2021 Caribbean Journal of Sciences and Technology (CJST) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Isolation and Identification of Antimicrobial Compounds from Berberis aristata Root Extract <p><em>Berberis aristata (Berberidaceae)</em> is an influential medicinal plant and found in the different provinces of the world. It has compelling medicinal value in the traditional Indian system of medicine. More multitudinous secondary metabolites are contemporary within the plants, which helps to cure the disease. The chromatographic techniques have significant role in natural products chemistry and discovery of innovative compounds of pharmaceutical and biomedical importance. The aim of the present study is to evaluate sequestration of secondary metabolites using column-chromatographic techniques and this metabolites can be further secluded, identified by using LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS system and also performed its antimicrobial activity. These metabolites were characterized for determination of medicinal properties. This study helps to identify the presence of secondary metabolic compounds in the plant.</p> Pranita V. Raithak, Arvind S. Dhabe, Sandeep T. Atkore, Narsimhaswamy D. , Ravi Varala Copyright (c) 2021 Caribbean Journal of Sciences and Technology (CJST) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence and Assessment of Disease Incidence and Severity in Citrus Orchards of Sub Zoba Hamelmalo <p>Citrus (<em>Citrus </em>spp. L.) production in Eritrea covers over 2409 ha of the land but the average potential of production is 91 q/ha to 150 -170 q/ha. This low yield might be due to lack of knowledge on management practices, adverse environmental factors and different diseases caused by various pathogens. Moreover, there is no proper recorded data on the identification of diseases on citrus and its intensity, hence, this survey: to identify the prevailed diseases; assessment of disease incidence, severity and calculate the ‘Area Under Disease Progress Curve’ (AUDPC).&nbsp; A survey was carried out in three orchards in each five citrus producing villages (<em>Fredarb, Tsebabo, Hamelmalo, Wazntet</em>and <em>Genfelom</em>) from sub-zoba Hamelmalo.&nbsp; The fungal diseases found on citrus were brown spot, sooty mold, gummosis, black spot, scab and melanose; the bacterial infection was canker; and viral diseases were leprosis and cholorotic dwarf. The highest percentage of disease incidence was recorded <em>Fredarb</em> with 77.16% and the lowest was found in <em>Genfelom</em> with 47.29 % in the same month.&nbsp; The highest percentage of diseases severity was found in <em>Hamelmalo</em> with 40.02%.&nbsp; On the other hand, the least percentage of disease severity was found in <em>Genfelom</em>with 25.04%. The influence of epidemiological factors showed that they could be some of the reasons to develop and spread the mean disease incidence (65.6%) in February, 2018. The AUDPC was recorded highest (2829) in the orchard 3 of <em>Hamelmalo</em>, and lowest (1152) in orchard 3 of <em>Tsebabo</em>. A decreasing trend of temporal disease data from the first month to the third month was estimated in the orchard 2 and orchard 3 of <em>Fredarb</em>, orchard 2 of <em>Genfelom</em>, orchard 1 of <em>Hamelmalo</em>, all orchards of <em>Tsebabo</em> and in both orchard1 and 3 of <em>Wazntet</em> villages.</p> Amanuel Tesfagergish, Ariam Ghebrebrhan, Rahel Temesghen, Rodas Dawit, Sethumadhava Rao Gangapuram Copyright (c) 2021 Caribbean Journal of Sciences and Technology (CJST) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis of Schiff bases: A Glimpse on recent literature <p>Herein, author has presented a brief update on the very recent synthetic approaches for the preparation of Schiff base and its analogues. This covers the aforementioned topic until August 2021.</p> Madhu Kasimala Copyright (c) 2021 Caribbean Journal of Sciences and Technology (CJST) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis of Pharmacologically Active Indazoles and Its Analogues: A Review <p>Studies on heterocyclic compounds are an evergreen branch of organic chemistry and attract the attention of chemists working not only in the field of natural products but also in synthetic chemistry. Indazole and its derivatives are one of the most vital heterocycles in drug molecules. Diversely substituted indazole derivatives have gained considerable attention in the field of medicinal chemistry due to their versatile biological activities. This mini review aims to abridge the recent (2011-2021 till date) advances in various methods for the synthesis of indazole derivatives. Moreover, the current developments in the biological activities of indazole-based compounds are also presented.</p> S.N.Murthy Boddapati, Baby Ramana Mutchu, Jagan Mohan Rao Saketi, Maheswara Rao Gokada, Suri Babu Patchipala, Hari Babu Bollikolla Copyright (c) 2021 Caribbean Journal of Sciences and Technology (CJST) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 COVID19 AND ITS VACCINES <p>After the outbreak of covid19 (SARS-CoV-2) which comes under the group of coronaviruses, the whole world has been shut down, lockdown being imposed in several countries, death rates rising, people suffering lack of hospitals with treatment related to covid, lack of medicine like remedisivir, etc., lack of beds in the hospitals and what more. The first case of covid19 was observed in Wuhan city of central China at the end of December 2019.&nbsp; Every person on this earth has been impacted one way or the other due to this pandemic. Wearing masks and carrying hand sanitizers has become a regular custom these days. Initially, it was very difficult for the people to cope up with the new normal but after understanding the importance of the rules and the severity of covid19 people started getting used to the new normal. The world is working together to combat this pandemic and now with high difficulties, various pharmaceutical companies have come up with vaccines against covid19. The availability of vaccines varies from one country to country. Thus, now it is the responsibility of the people to get vaccinated they break the chain of spread and get back our normal lives. This article reviews the coronavirus in general and talks about the impact of livelihood in this pandemic and a few of the vaccines available in the market which has been authorized and approved for the people to get vaccinated.</p> Bala sekharan chandra, Shreya A, Albert Gnana Prasad M Copyright (c) 2021 Caribbean Journal of Sciences and Technology (CJST) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Preparation of Graphene from Graphene oxide by Chemical Reducing Agents <p>Graphene, an atomically sp<sup>2</sup> hybridized thin two-dimensional carbon community material, got prodigious attention in the scientific field. Particularly, this review aims to provide the preparation approaches which can be used to reduce the oxygen assembly of graphene oxide to graphene. This review provides literature on the chemical reducing agents up to 2020.</p> Chandra Mohan Kurmarayuni, Basavaiah Chandu, Chandra Sekhar Devarapu, Lakshmi Prasanna Yangalasetty, Siva Jyothsna Gali, Srihari Chennuboyina, Hari Babu Bollikolla Copyright (c) 2021 Caribbean Journal of Sciences and Technology (CJST) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Covid-19 Vaccines Across the Globe- A Case Study <p><br>A brief study on the status of covid-19 vaccines all over the world is presented for the purpose of better understanding to readers.</p> Ravi Varala, Bala Sekharan Chandra, Hari Babu Bollikolla Copyright (c) 2021 Caribbean Journal of Sciences and Technology (CJST) Wed, 24 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000